| Internet glossary
ADSL: Transmission technology that allows the conventional telephone lines to transmit up to 16 Mbps (megabytes per second) by compression.
Applet: Small Java application distributed by the network to be run on the user's browser.
Application: Any software program developed for a specific function, such as a spreadsheet or for word-processing.
@: This symbol is commonly used to indicate an e-mail address. It is typed in by pressing a combination of keys.
ASP (Application Service Provider): Empresa amb l'objectiu d'oferir als seus clients (fonamentalment petites empreses i usuaris professionals) el lloguer, com alternativa a la compra, d'aplicacions per i a través de la xarxa.
Bandwidth: The quantity of data or amount of information (expressed in bytes per second or bps) that can be transmitted in a certain length of connection time.
Banner: Usually a small image, graphic, or text used for advertising on a web page with a link to the advertiser's web page.
Bookmark: Mark or reminder that you can leave on your browser to mark an interesting spot on the Internet so that you will be able to find it again later.
Browser or navigator: (such as Explorer, Netscape, or Mosaic). These are software applications that allow the user to access documents from the World Wide Web. Without these, the multimedia world of the WWW would not function. They allow the user to view information on-screen as well as to manipulate it.
B2B, Business-to-Business: Form of electronic commerce where commercial operations between companies take place, for example between a company and its suppliers, and not with end users.
B2C, Business-to-Consumer: Form of e-commerce where commercial operations are made between a company and its final users.
Cache: Copy of the last web pages visited by a user held in a computer's memory. When the user connects again and returns to these pages, the computer reads them from the hard drive without having to re-enter the net. This allows for a quicker response.
Cookies: Server's connection mechanism used to store and recover browsing information.
Cracker: This term describes an intruder who tries to enter a computer system without permission. Crackers usually have bad intentions, unlike "hackers", and they can access a lot of information by breaking into the system.
Cyberspace: This is the generic word used to describe the world of computers and users as well as those who are connected to the Internet.
Chat: Just as commercial services offers a place to talk, the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) allows real-time dialogue, just as in a multi-conference, between users on different computers. Communication is generally carried out using a keyboard.
Digital signature: Encoded information that identifies and authenticates the author of an electronic document.
DNS (Domain Name System): The Domain Name System makes browsing data for general use possible. Its main use is finding the IP addresses of hosts, based on their names. Some of the most important domains are: .com (commercial-companies),. edu (education), .org (non-profit organizations), .net (Internet operation),.gov (US Government) and .mil (US army). The majority of countries have their own domain: .us (United States), .es (Spain), .au (Australia).
Domain: A domain name system or DNS has been created for each connected computer that has its own personal address. This system groups computers hierarchically to simplify their identification. (The most common are the ones ending in .es, for Spain, and .com, .net,. org...)
Download: This term, in the language of the Internet, means to transmit and transfer programs, files, or data from any Internet server to your own computer.
E-commerce: Exchange of property and services via Information and Communication Technologies, usually with the use of platforms and standardized protocols.
E-mail: A telematic service similar to the normal postal system, except that it uses a computer system. This is a new and efficient means of communication between computers and databases all over the world.
Emoticon: A graphic symbol that is normally represents a human face in its various expressions by which a person can express their mood in an electronic form: " :-) ".
Encrypting: Encrypting describes the processing of a group of data, whether or not they form part of a set, to prevent anyone except the receiver from reading them.
E-zine: This is any magazine published on the Internet, particularly those that are only published on the Internet.
Flat rate: A type of contract with a telephone company whereby a fixed quantity is paid each month, regardless of how many hours you are connected.
Font Code: A web page is a set of html labels and their contents, which can be interpreted by a browser. The font code is protected by copyright.
FAQ (frequently asked questions): Users can resolve their doubts using the lists of questions and answers on many Websites.
Frame: This is the possibility that HTML language offers to divide a web page into various parts where each part can have an independent content from the others; each one of these zones is called a frame.
Freeware: Computer programs that are distributed on-line, free of charge.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol): This is one of the most important and widely used Internet applications, allowing you to copy files from a remote computer to your own.
GIF: This is a multimedia file format used to store all types of logos, images, drawings and photographs.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication): This system is compatible with the digital mobile telephony developed in Europe with the collaboration of operators, local governments and companies. It allows for voice and data transmission.
Hacker: Person with specialised knowledge of the internal workings of a system, computer, or a network of computers. This term is usually used with a negative connotation- in this instance, it would be more correct to use the term cracker. See also: "cracker".
Hypertext: The system by which you can access text files by copying the key words (usually highlighted in blue). These link you to another part or with another document when you click on them. This is how the reading order and the appearance of data from screen to screen is controlled.
Home page: All World Wide Web servers have a home page to introduce the information and services available. This is a virtual shop window for companies.
HTML: simple programming language for Web pages.
HTTP: Thanks to the instructions of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, all a user's browsing programmes reach the server that he/she wants to connect to.
HTTPS: The HTTPS system uses a code to create a secure channel for the sending of sensitive information. The level of security depends on the remote server and browser used by the customer.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers): The Internet Corporation for the Assignment of Names and Numbers is an independent non-profit body whose activities include the coordination of assigning IP address spaces and administering the system of assigning Internet domain names.
Internet: Series of networks interconnected by the TCP/IP protocol allows for communication between more than the 30 million of users all over the world who access the "network of networks".
Internet2: A project designed to create a bigger and better Internet in US universities.
Internet Service Provider (ISP): An organization that, in addition to facilitating user access to the Internet, offers diverse services such as: Website hosting, Website design and uploading, creation of Intranets.
InterNic: A company that has been granted the world service of domain registration for Internet users.
Intranet: An organisation's own network, designed and developed according to Internet protocols, especially TCP/IP.
IP address: Numerical representation of the location of a computer in a network. Made up of 4 numbers and up to 3 figures separated by full-stops.
IRC (Internet Relay Chat): Worldwide protocol for simultaneous conversations that allow a number of people to communicate by typing on their computers in real time.
Java: Programming language for creating small applications called applets that can be exported onto the Internet. These applications can operate on any platform, normally using WWW browsers. Allows you to make your Web pages dynamic.
Links: Corresponds to software devices that can collect and relate information from different computers in a single network or remotely connect pages to others.
Modem: Acronym for modulator/demodulator. Device that converts digital signals into analogical ones and vice-versa. Thus, it allows communication between two computers via a standard telephone or cable line (cable modem).
MP3: Method of digital audio recording and reproduction with good sound quality and a reasonable sized file.
Napster: programme that lets Internet users perform a number of actions related to MP3 sound files, the most important being to search for and download music in this format.
Netiquette: Internet etiquette. Group of norms within the Internet community.
Newsgroups: Discussion forums and debate groups. These are spaces created on the Internet where users contribute their opinions, texts and other documents on a specific topic dealt with by the group.
Outlook: Software or programme for reading, writing and sending emails.
Plugs-Ins: Basics for developing the Web's total multimedia capacity. These are small software accessories that amplify the browsers' functions.
POP3 (Post Office Protocol): A protocol for receiving emails sent to accounts with a defined mail administrator.
Portal: Website that offers the user access, in an easy integrated way, to a series of resources and services where they can find search engines, forums, e-shopping, etc. Programme enabling Internet users to listen to multimedia archives (audio and video, or audio alone).
Real audio: Programme that enables Internet users to listen to multimedia files (audio and video, or audio only).
Roaming: An Internet connection by someone who is mobile. Roaming services are also offered by telephone companies, who belong to alliances to cover different areas. It is actually the same as roaming with mobile telephones.
Search engine: as the Internet does not have an index, these programs structure all the information on the Internet systematically. Data can be found easily by entering key words or other method.
Shareware: Programmes that are distributed as demos, enabling users to test them in this trimmed-down version.
Spam: Massive, indiscriminate mailings and unsolicited advertising by e-mail.
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System): Standard mobile high speed and wide bandwidth telephone (2 Mbps upwards) Third generation system that will substitute the GMS and GPRS systems, and allow connection to the Internet.
Unzip: The act of unpacking and/or decompressing files that have been packed or compressed in a single file to occupy less space and/or allow them to be sent easier by the Internet.
Upload: This process transmits information from a personal computer to an information server on the Internet.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator): This is a single address that refers to a specific on-line document. This makes it easier to find resources.
Virtual SPT: Virtual Sales Point Terminal Like the traditional off-line business data phone although here it is presented by a Web page module. Linked to an issuing bank (who checks the authenticity of the data). There is no risk whatsoever for the vendor or service lender as the product is not released until the bank has not checked the data or the money has been deposited into the vendor's account.
Virtual community: A group of internet users who share common interests and meet in cyberspace. Members of a virtual community can contact one another through different platforms like: news groups, forums, chats, IRC channels, distribution lists, or groups who send messages to mobile telephones...
Virus: Programme that can cause serious problems in the systems that they attack.
Voice chat: Audio message exchange between on-line users. It has many applications. All you need is a computer connected to the Internet and a program for this purpose which can be found on-line and free of charge.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol): Protocol enabling Internet access to mobile telephone users, with the information appearing on the telephone screen.
Web editor: Person in charge of managing and organizing web contents.
Web page: This does not refer literally to a page, but rather to a document edited on the World Wide Web. The home page is the first page that appears when you enter into a website.
Webmaster/Web mistress or Web administrator: Responsible for managing and maintaining the Website, above all from a technical point of view.
WebSite: A space on the Web or a collection of linked Web pages.
Zip: Compression format: This is also the extension of a compressed file using a shareware programme such as Winzip.